Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC), created a strong message that forests are key to addressing the climate change question. Being a hotspot of climate change, the Mediterranean region has paid particular attention to the role that its forests play on climate change. The Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) of the Mediterranean countries have already assigned ambitious goals to the forestry sector.
Forest restoration projects used to focus on the establishment of single or a small number of species. This simplified approach, overlooking the ecological restoration principles, hampers the effectiveness of ecosystem recovery. Recently, a shift away from large-scale monospecific afforestation projects, to a holistic approach with multiple objectives, combining several socioeconomic and environmental benefits is observed. This allows the recovery of ecosystem functions related to human welfare.
The Mediterranean region is a hot-spot of climate change. The latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change identifies the Mediterranean as one of the regions most vulnerable to the impacts of global warming. By 2100, the Mediterranean climate is predicted to experience an average temperature increase of 2°C to 4°C.